INFORMED Industrial Mineral Forums & Research Ltd, a new source of professional networking opportunities and market research knowledge for the worldwide non-metallic minerals business, was launched little over a year ago in January 2015. Mike O’Driscoll and Ismene Clarke, formerly of Industrial Minerals magazine, have brought together in-depth experience, a well-respected reputation, and a proven track record gleaned from a combined 40-year career devising, managing, and commercializing industry-leading events, as well as original writing and information products for the industrial minerals industry. INFORMED has developed a series of Forums that provide intelligent and topical business networking for the industrial minerals industry, with an emphasis on raw materials for the refractory, foundry, and ceramics markets, among many other services. These conferences are carefully planned and handled by experienced chairpersons in order to engage and assist the industrial minerals supply and user industries.
The 2016 Mineral Recycling Forum will be held on the 14th and 15th of March in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Secondary raw material sourcing, supply, processing, and markets Secondary Raw Materials (SRM) have developed as a major source of industrial minerals for a variety of consuming markets, including refractories, as the mining industry strives for sustainable development. Minerals found in certain industrial waste products may now be recycled economically thanks to advancements in sourcing, processing, and quality control, as well as rising primary raw material prices.
Recycling of used refractories is being pursued with zeal, with refractory giants like RHI AG/AT announcing raw material substitution and recycling as a key component of their Strategy 2020. Meanwhile, refractory recycling processors are upgrading and expanding their facilities, such as Horn & Co. Group in Germany, which uses a Secopta GmbH-supplied automated sorting system, and opening new plants, such as LKAB Minerals’ Moerdijk refractory recycling facility in the Netherlands. The Mineral Recycling Forum 2016 brings together a panel of experts to discuss the most recent trends and advancements in SRM sourcing, supply, processing, quality control, logistics, and, most importantly, market applications. All individuals involved in the SRM supply chain, particularly established refractory mineral suppliers and purchasers interested in assessing the prognosis for competing and replacement materials, will find the meeting useful. Waste refractories, steel slag, aluminum salt slag, silica fume, cenospheres, and wastewater are among the topics covered.
Mineral Logistics Forum 2016, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 11–13 April 2016 Industrial mineral supply chain logistics challenges and solutions The most important link between mineral suppliers and customers is logistics — moving your minerals from mine to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. A fledgling refractory mineral project’s future is jeopardized from the outset if proper care and attention is not given to secure optimal logistical systems and supply lines. It’s astonishing how often the significance of logistics is overlooked, given that mineral transportation expenses can account for up to 70% of the total delivered cost of the mineral product. This one-day lecture will be followed by a field trip to mineral facilities in the Port of Rotterdam, which is one of Europe’s important port gateways. The relevance of logistics methods, mineral supply from the United States and China, Vienna as a transportation hub, and examining the entire chain of mineral handling choices are among the topics covered.
MagForum 2016 will take place in Vienna, Austria, from the 9th to the 11th of May. Supply and demand forecasts for magnesium minerals and markets INFORMED is pleased to announce its inaugural MagForum 2016 – the biennial conference for all those involved in the development, supply, processing, logistics, and market use of magnesium minerals – in response to market demand.
A Field Trip to the facility of principal sponsor and refractory giant RHI AG in Veitsch/AT precedes the conference. The business, which is the world’s oldest magnesia processing facility, marked its 135th anniversary in 2016. The plant has been undergoing a major EUR 18 million upgrade since 2013, with completion scheduled for 2016. The goal is to improve productivity, product quality, and reduce environmental impact. The mill produces 220 000 t/a of refractories, with steel and cement markets being the primary customers. With an executive discussion panel, regional supply reviews from around the world, what it takes to bring on a new source of supply, and innovations in calcination, MagForum Day 1 focuses on magnesia supply. The second day of the MagForum is dedicated to market trends and forecasts, covering refractories, welding, ceramics, the environment, chemicals, and flame retardants.
Graphite Supply Chain 2016 will be held in Newport Beach, California, from the 13th to the 15th of November. The natural graphite industry’s global meeting place Three days of talks, workshops, and networking events focused on the current and future state of the natural graphite business, from mine to market. Users of graphite are keeping a careful eye on the growth of the next generation battery business, which now competes with refractories for the second highest market share. The development of Li-ion batteries and their increasing use in electric vehicles, utility storage facilities, and consumer-led electronic devices has resulted in this market capturing a significant portion of global flake graphite supply: future tight competition with refractory consumers looms large.
For more than 40 years, LINGL has been a global provider of machines and systems for the manufacturing of refractory materials. LINGL offers individual machinery, process engineering, and integrated solutions, particularly in the domains of drying, tempering, burning, and handling systems. LINGL places a high value on customer service. Our global service offices ensure that our customers receive the finest possible support.
The magazine “Refractories Worldforum,” which specializes in refractory materials, recently published an article detailing the latest developments in the LIFE 5REFRACT project. The best practices developed and implemented in Sidenor associated with the management of refractory waste, as well as new applications for reutilization, remanufacturing, and recycling of these materials, are shown in this quarterly publication, which gathers the most current and innovative technological trends in the refractory sector.
The industrial experiments, which were carried out in partnership with Magna and Refralia, have proved the technical feasibility of all of the solutions detailed in the aforementioned article, titled “Systematic and Integral Valorization of Refractory Waste under the 5R-Approach.”
It also encompasses the most recent results of the University of Malaga’s tests for the automatic sorting of refractory waste using LIBS technology, as well as the preliminary results of the Life Cycle Analysis, led by 2.0 LCA Consultants, which calculates the environmental benefit involved in dealing with the project’s new practices.
6 Company News
8 How can refractory suppliers pave the way for a low-carbon future for their end-user industries?
11 Phenol-Free Refractory Lining – Another Innovation for Better Workplace and Environment
13 Rise Above Downtime: Three Ways Suspended Platforms Increase Efficiency for Vertical Vessel Maintenance
15 Refractories Testing and the Significance of Chemical and Physical Characteristics
19 Promotion and Support of Refractory Science and Engineering
28 Virtual Refractory Minerals Forum 2021
33 Viscosity Changes of an Alumina Based Castable during Mixing and the Effect of Bimodal Reactive Aluminas
38 Formation of Hexa-Aluminate Solid Solution Phases in Spinel Containing Castables – Mineralogical Investigations in the System CaO–Al2O3–MgO
45 Study of Lime Kiln Refractory Failure Solution
50 Setting Properties of Refractory Castables: Influence of Impurities on Coagulation and Hydration – A Case Study Based on the Addition of Traces of MgCl2
59 Improved Explosion Resistance of Low Cement Refractory Castables
67 Purification and Densification of High Purity Sintered Magnesia from Natural Magnesite in China
74 Refractories Suppliers
104 Preview, Index to Advertisers
Elkem/NO has completed its industrial pilot for battery materials in Kristiansand/NO and is already producing industrial scale pilots for customers. Elkem is launching Vianode, a new firm and brand dedicated to developing and producing sustainable and high-quality active anode materials to fulfil the needs of the rapidly expanding electric car market.
Vianode has been formed as a wholly-owned subsidiary of Elkem, and Elkem’s existing advanced battery materials efforts will be integrated into the new firm. Elkem is now seeking participation from external industrial and financial partners. Vianode is still actively recruiting for important positions, including the organization for the future Herya Industrial Park site.
“One of our largest development prospects is the production of battery materials. We’ve made a big step forward in getting our products ready for customers by commissioning the industrial pilot. We ensure complete concentration on expanding this business and pushing the large-scale battery factory towards a scheduled final investment decision in 2021 by establishing Vianode as a separate company for innovative battery materials,” stated Michael Koenig, CEO of Elkem.
The industrial pilot of Vianode in Kristiansand has already begun qualifying processes with a number of battery cell manufacturers. ”The start of the industrial pilot represents a significant step forward in Norway and the Western world in terms of industrial scale production of sustainable battery materials. We anticipate significant synergies from Kristiansand’s production and research environment in relation to today’s and tomorrow’s battery uses. The lessons learned from operating the industrial pilot will be invaluable in the construction of a large-scale battery materials plant at Herya Industrial Park, the first step in establishing Vianode as a global leader in innovative battery materials,” said Chris York, Vice President of Vianode. An anode, a cathode, an electrolyte, and a separator are the four essential components of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. “Anode materials are now one of the most significant sources to greenhouse gas emissions in the battery cell manufacturing process. “In comparison to conventional production, Vianode expects to reduce emissions from this area of the battery materials value chain by more than 90%,” stated Stian Madshus, Vice President and General Manager Europe at Vianode.
Vianode is now in talks with a number of battery cell manufacturers throughout the world, and in October 2020, it signed a memorandum of agreement with FREYR for the supply of battery materials. Competitive public support mechanisms and supporting government policies are required for a favourable investment choice for a large-scale battery materials production in Norway. Vianode has already obtained NOK 10 million in funding from Enova, a Norwegian government agency dedicated to promoting a low-carbon society, to help fund the preliminary planning of a large-scale battery materials production in Norway. Additional applications for the large-scale plant will be submitted to Enova in the coming months. Vianode has also secured grants from Innovation Norway for the pilot plant, and is on the EU’s Innovation Fund shortlist with early scores in the upper tier in terms of “degree of innovation,” “project maturity,” and “relative GHG emissions.”
For the foreseeable future, Vianode will continue to conduct advanced research on silicon-graphite composite materials in order to increase battery performance. The company is involved in the Hydra and 3beLiEVe lithium-ion battery research projects, which are coordinated by SINTEF and the Austrian Institute of Technology, respectively. The EU Horizon program provided financing for both initiatives. Vianode is also investing in battery-grade graphite recycling research, which is financed by the Norwegian Research Council.